1. Installation of New Gas Pipelines and Replacement / Re Routing of Existing Gas Pipelines and Replacement of High Pressure (HP) Rich Gas Network at Kuwait and Other Pipeline Works – QRA study at Operation stage
Cross country pipeline used for transporting Oil & Gas products is a cause of concern when it becomes old. One of the operating companies in Kuwait intended to replace some of the Gas pipelines in the High Pressure Gas (HP)/Low Pressure (LP) Pipeline Network in Kuwait, since they are more than 25 years old, non-piggable and are found to be unfit for continued service. To assist in this process, operating company hired NAPESCO/ NAPESCO INDIA to conduct HAZOP and QRA Study to these pipelines and associated Manifolds, Pig Launcher(s)/Receiver(s). The QRA study covered both the risk to the public as well as risk to KOC personnel and contractors
The study developed a QRA Model, which in turn provided a platform for establishing safe distances for the location of future facilities and infrastructure, as well as for establishing practical risk criteria and field wide controls to manage H2S risks and associated SIMOPs, access control, and Emergency Response. It also evaluated the benefits in terms of increased safety of adopting a number of identified ALARP options for the upgrade of the pipelines.
The study brought out the conclusions pertaining to continuing the use of same pipelines for future, need for any design upgrade and minimization of inventory, steps required to segregate the pipeline in the areas where human intervention is frequent, inspection and monitoring program, update onsite and offsite emergency plans etc. The results helped the client to present to statutory authorities, communicate to the nearby human habitation, rehearse the emergency plans etc.
2. FPSO – Safety in Design study (includes various HSE and Loss Prevention studies)
One of the offshore operators is entrusted the job of carrying out the initial development through a Wellhead platform (WHP) and a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) facility within Gulf of Guinea, offshore Nigeria. An integral part of the successful delivery of the Project is to demonstrate “Safety in Design” of the FPSO. The Safety Study scope for NAPESCO India during the execution of Project included demonstrating all potential hazards associated with the FPSO have been identified in the project phases and satisfactorily addressed by the design; demonstrating the risks associated with the identified hazards are As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) and it is in Compliance with regulatory requirements, Classification requirements, Offshore Regulations, etc.
The above objective was achieved by carrying out HSE Safety Studies such as Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA), Fire & Explosion Risk Analysis (FERA), Smoke and Gas Dispersion Analysis (SGDA), Escape, Temporary Refuge, Evacuation and Rescue Analysis (ETRERA), Emergency System Survivability Analysis (ESSA), Fire & Gas (F&G) Mapping, Thermal Plume and Turbulence Analysis, Non-Flammable Hazard Analysis, Formal Safety Assessment and Safety Case, ALARP & CBA Assessment, Safety Critical Elements (SCE) Identification Report, SCE and Performance Standards, Need for PFP Study and Emission Study.
The above studies provided inputs for design on Passive Fire Protection, Active Fire Protection, Fire and Gas detectors, Blast Design Overpressure etc, Identification of Safety Critical Equipments, Identification of Primary Temporary Refuge and Secondary Temporary Refuge requirements, Deciding Vent Height for Safe Disposal based on SGDA and to calculate the Hydrocarbon and Non Hydrocarbon Risk associated with the FPSO Cyrus and providing additional risk reduction measures such as addition of ESDVs, etc to bring down the risk in Acceptable Level for the safe operation of FPSO Cyrus. NAPESCO INDIA has helped the designers and end user to achieve the suitable design for the FPSO facility.
3. Early Production Facilities in Kuwait – HAZOP, SIL &PHSER studies
Operating company intends to design and commission three numbers of Early Production Facilities at North Kuwait (NK). The Facility is expected to receive Reservoir Well fluids with varied composition at High Pressure which is around 1050 psig. Inlet fluid arrival pressure will gradually decrease to Medium Pressure level which is around 500 psig. Production Facilities consist of Oil Section and Gas Section along with Common Utility and Supporting System. Oil Section of facility consist of Inlet and Gas-Oil Separation System, Oil Treatment System, Crude Export System and Off-Spec Crude System, Effluent Water Treatment System and Supporting system for Crude section. The Gas Section of the facility consists of Sour Gas Compression Package – I, Sour Gas Compression Package – II, Vapor Gas Recovery Compression System and Supporting system for Gas section. The international contractor who is responsible for Built, Operate and Transfer of these facilities hired NAPESCO/NAPESCOINDIA to carry out safety studies such as HAZOP, SIL, PHSER studies during EPC stage.
To avoid / mitigate the occurrence of unwanted and undesired events, KOC plans to conduct a QRA study for the above project. Accordingly, KOC has requested NAPESCO to carry out the QRA study for the above facilities involved in the project to assess major accident risks associated with the facilities within the battery limits of JPF due to the release of hazardous materials from various accidental scenarios; evaluate their acceptance based on KOC Tolerable Risk Criteria, and propose risk reduction measures, if the risks are deemed unacceptable (too high) by providing additional ESDVs, Fire and Gas Detectors, Active and Passive Fire Protection and to finalize the location of Control Room and to decide the Flare Stack height for safe disposal.
4. Up-gradation of the High Pressure Rich Gas (HPRG), Low Pressure Rich Gas (LPRG), Condensate, Fuel Gas Network System of South East Kuwait (SEK) for 30 Manifolds – FERA, HAC & F&G mapping study at FEED stage
Upstream Oil Operating company intends to enhance the integrity of its HP Gas, LP Gas, Condensate and Fuel Gas networks in 30 Manifolds at SEK area by implementing the following measures:
- Replacement of the old lines with incident history, in line with Inspection & Corrosion Teams recommendations for replacement.
- Provision & Installation of pigging facilities on the buried non-piggable Pipelines as well as pipelines with length more than 1km ensuring that these lines are effectively piggable.
- Demolishing, removal and cart away of the redundant, unusable and not-in-use pipelines to decongest the pipelines corridor.
Subsequently Fire and Explosion, Fire & Gas (F&G) Mapping Study and Hazardous Area Classification for the above project were awarded to NAPESCO/ NI to analyze the fire and explosion risks posed by the hydrocarbons (flammable & combustible) handled in the facility and to provide Active & Passive Fire Protection Measures and Fire & Gas detectors in the Manifold area during the FEED stage. NI provided the suggestions on location of new manifold, additional risk control measures, passive and active fire protection requirements, F&G requirements for each manifold. These studies apart from ensuring the minimum requirements to be provided by the EPC contractor also helped the contractors to estimate the budget for the project during the bidding stage.
5. Installation of Incinerator at Hazardous Waste Treatment Centre- FEED stage Safety Studies
Qatar based Oil & Gas giant proposed to install Hazardous Waste Incinerator (HWI) to incinerate Hazardous waste generated in Qatar . Three incinerators of 1.9 MT/hr capacity each were to be installed in the existing Hazardous Waste Treatment Centre in three phases with associated utilities and infrastructure facilities. Incinerator is of Rotary kiln type with Air Pollution Control system (APC). Infrastructure includes Hazardous waste reception / storage facility, liquid / slurry storage tank farm, liquid blending facility, drum washing / handling facility, evaporation pond etc. Utility includes LPG, Diesel fuel storage and transfer facility, Service / Potable water storage and transfer facility, fire water storage and pumping facility, Plant air / instrument air supply system, nitrogen generation system. FEED engineer who was awarded the above contract engaged Napesco India to carry out the Safety Studies such as QRA, HAZID, HAZOP, SIL,SAFOP for the above facility in order to assess major accident risks associated with the facilities, to provide additional requirements of SDVs if required and Active & Passive Fire Protection to the facility. The studies helped FEED engineers to design the facilities safely, deciding location of the facility, planning the infrastructure, reviewing the fire and safety systems etc.
6. New Gas Sweetening Facility in West Kuwait – FEED stage HSE studies
Upstream Oil processing company is planning to install a New Gas Sweetening Facility (NGSF) at West Kuwait (WK) to treat a part of Sour Gas produced at West Kuwait Facilities which will be operated on need basis to meet WK performance targets. The New Gas Sweetening Facility is designed to treat and deliver 120 MMSCFD sweet gas as product from various sour gas streams from upstream processing units with a varied H2S concentration from 2% – 5% (Mole) and CO2 of 6% – 10% (Mole) through two trains. The Facility is proposed to be built in the location near to the one of the Booster Stations at west Kuwait) and shall be safely integrated with the existing systems/ongoing projects of the operating company. The selected configuration of New Gas Sweetening Facility and integration works is given as below;
New Amine treating system, regeneration system, Incineration System, Utilities, supporting network and interface works (corresponding to 2 X 60 MMSCFD product Trains) with a provision for future Phase II expansion (Sulfur Recovery Unit and a third train of identical capacity).
NAPESCO / NAPESCO INDIA carried out the Safety Studies such as QRA, F&G Mapping, HAZID, HAZOP, SIL, PHSER for the FEED stage of above project to address the risk associated with the facility and to check the requirement of additional ESDVs, requirement of additional Active / Passive Fire Protection System and requirement of Fire and Gas detectors in the facility. The studies helped the operating company to roll out the tender documents for the EPC stage communicating the bidders the precise requirements of the project.
7. Effluent Water Treatment and Injection Plant in North Kuwait- HSE studies at EPC stage
Operating company in Kuwait is planning for furnished, assembled, tested, commissioned and ready EW Treatment and Injection Plant (NK) (EWTIP) at North Kuwait to provide sufficient injection water to meet the requirements of the North Kuwait well injectors.
For this purpose, EPC contractor approached NAPESCO / NAPESCO INDIA to execute HSE studies such as QRA, FEHA, Smoke Dispersion, F&G Mapping, Flare Radiation and Dispersion Analysis, RAM for the above project to assess major accident risks associated with the facilities within the battery limits of EWTIP due to the release of hazardous materials from various accidental scenarios and to assess whether the risks meet the company risk criteria, provide additional Active and Passive Fire Protection, to check the requirement of additional Fire and Gas Detectors, to check the requirement of additional ESDVs and to check the reliability and availability of the equipments during the operation of EWTIP. Studies helped the contractor and operating company to decide layout, review design, requirement of standby equipment etc.
8. Sour Gas Pipelines (18 Nos) at West Kuwait – QRA operating stage
Upstream operating company operates a number of Sour Gas Transmission Pipelines in West Kuwait (WK) field areas. Presently, the level of risk posed by these pipelines due to the presence of H2S in the Gas not identified yet. These developments coupled with the high toxicity of H2S, which may impact own personnel, contractors and general public, has increased concern over these pipelines and operating company is actively considering options to be taken to help reduce the risk associated with these pipelines. To assist in this process, Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) Study was conducted to these pipelines and associated Manifolds, Pig Launcher(s)/Receiver(s). The study brought out the actions to be taken by the operating company and municipal authorities with respect to the operation and maintenance control of pipeline and access control required for the same.